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This created massive disruptions both for the everyday lifestyles of consumers and, more importantly, for businesses, especially smaller ones.
The first half of 2023 was also characterised by a substantial number of hours of load-shedding, but towards the end of May through June, the intensity of load-shedding surprisingly diminished. Whereas for much of the year, there seemed to be many days in which there were shutdowns of up to six and eight hours on the back of a shortage of electricity of over 6000 MW, this fell to levels of outages of no more than two to six hours associated with electricity shortages of less than 4000 MW. This favourable development was somewhat surprising given that the demand for electricity was expected to increase steeply as winter approached and its use for heating increased.